你的說明清楚嗎?

你的說明清楚嗎?

「寫作」的本義,就是藉由文字抒發內心情感、表達自我想法,近年來尤其著重培養學生「議論」能力,而「說清楚、講明白」便是議論最基本要求。

你認為「說明清楚」是一件容易的事嗎?我曾在課堂中準備一幅圖畫,請一位同學上台說明圖畫內容,其他同學則根據台上同學的說明描繪出這幅圖的畫面,最後再將作品和原圖比較差同。

「說明一張圖片」聽起來似乎易如反掌,因此在徵求自願上台說明圖片的同學時,許多人躍躍欲試,然而實際說明當刻,問題卻層出不窮——有些是一股腦地說出自己觀察所得;有些是說得粗糙簡略,無法呈現細節;有些則是不見章法地道出圖中所見,以致台上同學說得滔滔不絕,臺下同學聽得一頭霧水。有了這樣的實際體驗後,同學們深刻感受到——原來「說明清楚」並不簡單呀!

要將一件事、一個物品說明介紹得清晰明白本非易事,我們在生活中也不乏看了、聽了「說明」後不明所以的經驗。要寫出一則易於理解的「說明」,必須掌握以下幾個原則:第一,必須針對事物的本質和特徵加以說明,所有的說明以此為中心開展。第二,說明事物應層次明晰而富條理,例如可依時間、空間及邏輯順序等安排說明內容。第三,用字遣詞務必準確易懂,文字要確切無誤,如此才能有效地傳遞說明訊息。

在介紹以上三個重點後,接著讓同學再嘗試一次「說明清楚」,請同學們選擇一項物品(自己發明的物品亦可),運用說明方法詳細介紹物品的外型、構造、用途、功能、使用方法、製作程序……等,同學們的說明明顯地更加精確,脈絡也愈加井然。例如有同學介紹「國王的新衣」:

「這件『國王的新衣』設計及剪裁殊奇別緻,工序繁複:首先需以天絲為衣料,接著運用奈米科技使衣物輕、薄、透氣,最後再以純手工繡上七彩紋飾,如此精細的做工,讓它色彩燦豔奪目,質料柔滑飄然。然而,它最具特色之處為——唯聰穎慧黠之人方可目睹之。」

由此可知,只要能把握有效說明的方向與要竅,「說明清楚」並非難事啊!

 

原文出自《好讀周報》532期

 

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