題旨篇/織一張美麗的網 拓展題旨3方法

題旨篇/織一張美麗的網 拓展題旨3方法

聯合報寫作教室講師吳俊霖/撰寫

經歷過審查題意、深化題旨的步驟之後,得到了寫作的前提,提供我們落筆前的參照,如先前所譬喻,寫作文章若像一艘船航行海上,當我們核確了航行的起點、終點與方向之後,接下來,該決定哪一條路線是最有效率或是能夠見到美的景致。

拓展題旨

深化題旨,就像將洞挖深,從中尋找寶藏或埋下寶藏,指向啟發、情感、價值、意義,使文章具有一個終極核心;拓展題旨,則是縱橫發展,尋求連結,如織大網,拼合出各種線索、關係,使文章不至於千篇一律。如果說深化題旨考驗的是寫作者的洞察力,拓展題旨考驗的就是寫作者對題目本身的聯想能力。拿到題目時,不妨先將腦中直覺閃過的意念,用簡潔、清晰的詞彙寫下來,這些詞彙可能只是動詞或形容詞,可能是具體的物象,可能是某個事件,也可能只是非常簡短的句子,但無論是哪種,都是幫助我們擴大題旨的資糧。

強化連結

瞬間浮現的意念越多越好,彼此間的詞句意義越分歧越佳。意念越多,代表能發展的面向越多;意義分歧,當他們產生連結時便有特殊的張力。然後,我們再將這些意念按其性質相似的各自分類,拈出主題,思索不同分類間是否具有「連結點」。「連結點」通常是這篇文章可安排的轉折處,其實,進行意念詞彙分類,頭腦亦同時思考段落的安排。有些同學面對的問題,不在於意念太多不知該如何抉擇,而在於想著題目但腦中一片空白,這時,有幾種方法可以試著操作看看。

第一,善用心智圖、樹狀圖、曼陀羅九宮格(題目在中間,剩餘八格填寫材料)、魚骨圖等思考方式,推衍、觸發與想像。第二,假如腦海一片空白,可試著按題旨主題,由其「形似」、「神似」、「相反」等三個方面去做性質上、事件上、實物上的聯想,將題旨視為喻體,尋找相應的喻依。第三,假如腦海已經有一到兩個意念詞彙,但不知該如何觸發其他,可將聯想主體由題目文字轉而聚焦到寫下的詞彙身上,進一步衍伸、聯想,並確認新衍生出的詞彙彼此間的詞意不相重疊且具有詮釋空間,再從中選擇一到兩個具有特殊性、啟示性、代表性的題材書寫。

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