公民新聞

公民新聞

文/管中祥

雖然台灣媒體亂象讓人詬病,但我們也不必感到焦慮,隨著媒體識讀能力的提升,以及網路與智慧型手機的普及,強調公民報導的「公民新聞」也逐漸受到重視,自己的新聞可以自己報導。

●公民自主採訪 反映公共議題

「公民新聞」指的是公民透過個人或集體的方式蒐集、報導、分析、傳布新聞資訊、報導社會行動,提供獨立、可信、需要的新聞。「公民新聞」包括「公民」及「新聞」兩個面向,前者指的是公民自主採訪、編輯新聞,並且從草根的立場展現公民的觀點,而後者意味著公民所報導的新聞資訊能反映公民關心的公共議題,由公民的角度監督政府,促成公共討論,落實公民傳播權利。

●公民製作新聞 打破資訊壟斷

公民新聞的出現,除了因為追求利益的商業媒體過度報導腥煽色內容,忽略顧及人民關心的重要議題,不被民眾所信任外,另一個原因則是強調將新聞生產的權力直接交給公民,打破新聞專業者的資訊壟斷,透過簡便、易操作的生產工具報導新聞,建立新聞生產的由下而上模式與力量。

●報導可訓練 專業未必輸記者

不過,這也使得有人認為公民新聞不夠「專業」,的確,在新聞實務上,雖然公民記者未必受過新聞專業訓練,但可能會是某個議題的專業者,例如,一位文史工作者雖然不是記者,但對文化政策的理解未必會輸給專業記者,或者,高中生雖然不是專業記者,但對於校園議題的認識,或者對中學生問題的了解,也可能比新聞記者更為貼切。再加上新聞報導的能力可以透過多加練習逐漸培養,因此,公民報導的專業能力並不會輸給一般記者。

●PeoPo 最大公民新聞平台

公共電視的PeoPo是台灣最大的公民新聞平台,於2007年正式成立,PeoPo強調「開放」、「行動」、「分享」的平台定位,不論是台灣公民或者是外國人,只要填寫基本資料,經過身份確認,就能在平台上報導新聞,發表評論。PeoPo不但受到民眾歡迎,也受國際媒體肯定,截至2019年5月23日,已經累積了13萬702篇報導,共1萬380位公民記者。

在台灣最受社會關注,也引起社會迴響的公民報導應該就屬「當怪手開進稻田中⋯⋯」。

2010年,當時的苗栗縣長劉政鴻欲徵收大埔農田興建科學園區,遭居民反對。不料卻在6月9日凌晨3點多,在200多名員警的護衛下,將20多輛怪手、鏟土車開進即將收成的農田,居民手足無措,只能眼睜睜地看到心血遭到毀壞。還好,公民記者大暴龍即時將影像剪輯上傳到PeoPo公民新聞平台,隨即被網友「瘋傳」,引起社會對大埔及台灣農業的關心,也引發後續一連串的社會運動。

●高中生也投入報導行列

近年來也有越來越多高中生投入公民報導的行列,例如,正心中學楊曜禎在高二時拿起攝影機記錄家鄉,報導雲林的空汙問題,希望激發同學及年輕人對環境議題的關注。曾就讀明道中學的李若慈除了用影像記錄家鄉長輩的生活點滴與文化記憶,也報導彰化縣台西村飽受空氣汙染的災害,以及當地民眾如何投入建立再生能源及公民電廠等社區運動。

網路及攝錄器村的普及與操作簡便,報導新聞的能力與權力逐漸從專業記者擴大到每位公民的手中,下次,你也可以試著報導你所關心的公共議題。

(作者為中正大學傳播學系教授、台灣公民行動影音紀錄協會理事長。)

原文出自《好讀周報》516期

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