好戲劇的要素

好戲劇的要素

文╱管中祥

不過,不只是《我們與惡的距離》入圍14項金鐘獎,公視另一部獨立單元劇《你的孩子不是你的孩子》也一樣有14項入圍,而公共電視更刷新金鐘獎紀錄,總共入圍111項,再度成為最大贏家。

公共電視之所以能成為得獎的常勝軍,除了管理與製作團隊的專業與努力,更重要原因是因為它的經費來自於政府的預算捐贈,政府雖然提供經費,但也必須保障其自主運作,不得干預運作,公視才能有創意空間拍攝具實驗性的新作品。也因為來自政府的財源穩定,沒有廣告壓力,相較於其它商業媒體,不用製作只強調感官刺激的吸睛節目,不必隨波逐流,才能確保節目品質。

公視節目雖然經常得獎,但卻叫好不叫座,雖然獲得專業評審的肯定,節目收視率通常不高,像《我們與惡的距離》這種同時得到觀眾及評審肯定的公視連續劇其實不常見。

《我們與惡的距離》收視率一開始並不高,第一集只有0.78,但一路攀升,到了最終回完結篇的收視率高達3.40,不但是公共電視台史上收視率第三高的戲劇節目,在HBO或其它OTT影視平台播出時,也獲得不錯的迴響。

除了公共電視提供獨立自主的製作空間與部分製作經費,《我們與惡的距離》也獲得政府前瞻計畫的補助。在政府經費的支持下,有了較充裕的製作費用,才能從無到有搭建全新的電視新聞台場景,讓戲劇更有真實感。

換句話說,《我們與惡的距離》之所以能夠成功,除了來自工作人員的努力,公視提供自主的製作空間,政府的補助經費是重要的因素。但即使如此,也未必代表一部戲就會因此受到歡迎,除了上述條件,更重要的是劇情能否感動人心?是否能引起共鳴?

《我們與惡的距離》有傳統戲劇中的情愛、衝突、懸疑等元素,還結合了包括無差別殺人、死刑、媒體亂象、精神障礙等時事議題,這類題材雖然嚴肅,但卻經常可見,也是大眾媒體熱議的話題,自然容易得到社會共鳴。

不過,要寫這樣的劇本並不簡單,不能只是關在書房憑空想像,而要走入人群,接地氣。

編劇團隊花了不少時間進行田野,實地走訪新聞媒體、精障機構、醫院、法院,也訪問了包括醫生、精神障礙者、記者、社工、法官、律師、立法委員等將近40位專業人士,並大量閱讀相關書籍,增加自己的專業知識。這樣的陣仗與準備在台灣電視史上十分罕見,但正是因為拍攝的前製工作花了不少心力,《我們與惡的距離》才能貼近時事,感動人心。

一部電視劇能不能成功涉及諸多原因,不但要有好的演員,認真、專業的製作團隊,還要有充足的經費,以及不受政治與商業力量干涉的製作環境,創作者才能有自主、奔放的空間,製作出有創意的作品。作為一個戲劇創作者,不僅得有基本的製作能力與素養,還要能走入社會、貼近人心,才能與觀眾產生共鳴,推出叫好又叫座還能撼動人心的作品。

(作者為中正大學傳播學系副教授、台灣公民行動影音紀錄協會理事長)

原文出自《好讀周報》532期

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